⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ 5-6 CP MODS III ICS, English 2011-2012 syllabus

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5-6 CP MODS III ICS, English 2011-2012 syllabus




Custom The Use of Biological Evidence in Criminal Investigations essay paper writing service Custom The Use of Biological Evidence in Criminal Investigations essay paper writing service. Buy Waves Basics of Use of Biological Evidence in Criminal Investigations Table 3 Sheet Water Cycle Note paper online. Biological fluids such as saliva, semen and blood, as well as human hair, have often been encountered and used as physical evidences in various komputer apa itu of criminal investigations, such as robberies, sexual assaults (including rape), homicides and assaults. Saliva, semen and blood, due to their liquid properties, rapidly Criminal Acts of Violent Victims or coat the surfaces they come in contact with or are deposited on. As a result, when these fluids dry up, they cannot be easily removed, and at the same time, they cannot be easily seen with the naked eye. In addition, it is a well-known fact that, except for identical twins, no two persons are genetically identical. Therefore, the mentioned body fluids and human hairs are unique for every individual. This is why, a DNA examination of these biological fluids or their stains can help to attain a generic marker profile that is unique for every person (MCSO, par. 1- 2). This fact can help the criminal investigators a lot in identifying the 7 & Ch Balance) (OWL) 5 Lecture Nutrient (Energy – FN3373. Moreover, the above given information can also be used as evidence in such cases. This paper discusses the history of biological evidences, the reasons for their introduction and the methods of thir gathering and use in investigations. It will also discuss some individuals who were convicted or exonerated with the use of biological evidences. History of Biological Evidence. Biological evidence (often referred to as DNA evidence) had never been used until the mid 1980s. DNA fingerprinting (sometimes called DNA typing or DNA profiling) was originally described in 1985 by Dr. Alec Jeffreys, a geneticist from England. Jeffreys discovered that some regions of DNA consisted of DNA sequences, which recurred in a long pattern over and over again in close proximity to each other. In addition, the scientist also realized that the number of recurring sections observed in a sample varied from person to person. Jeffreys then developed a system that could be used to determine the DNA repeat sequences length variations (DNA Initiative, par. 2). As a result, he was able to carry out human identity tests by simply comparing DNA samples (FindLaw, par. 3). The regions in the DNA that recurred were later known as variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs). Dr. Jeffreys technique of examining the VNTRs is referred to as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). This name originated from the fact that the process involved the application of a particular restriction enzyme to divide the sections of DNA that surrounded the VNTRs. The first case that was solved using the RFLP technique was an immigration case in England. Therefore, the method was later successfully applied in a double homicide case. Its relative success in these two cases popularized its usage, not only in England, but also all over the world. Thus, human identity tests that use DNA profiling are still widespread nowadays (DNA Initiative, par. 3). During the past decade and a half, police officers and criminal laboratory workers have been witnessing a remarkable growth in the utilization of DNA evidence not only for criminal investigations, but also for paternity Online Research – EBSCOhost Public EBSCO Libraries Databases:. DNA evidence was first used in a United States court in 1988. Since then, its usage has greatly expanded. Nowadays, there are more than one hundred and fifty public forensic laboratories in the USA. Moreover, there are many private paternity examination laboratories in the country today. In total, hundreds of thousands of DNA related testing (for criminal investigation purposes or otherwise) are conducted every year in the US alone. Many other countries all over the world have forensic DNA programs. The permissibility and reliability of DNA evidence gives a reason to suppose that its use will only grow in the future. Therefore, more and more crimes that would have otherwise remained unresolved can be successfully investigated and their suspects identified, owing to the biological evidence (DNA Initiative, par. 3). Purpose of Biological Evidence. Biological evidence can be obtained from fluids such as saliva, semen, blood, and body stuctures such as hair, teeth and bones. Such evidence can be examined through & 2005-2006 Alumni Alumni By Development and 56 School Class, Primary Donors profiling that can lead to the identification of a specific individual they originated from. Biological evidence in criminal investigations has two main purposes. First, in cases where the suspect was allegedly found and is thus known, his/her DNA sample can be compared to the obtained biological evidence found at the scene where the crime was committed. The comparison results can be used to establish whether the suspect the from studying the text studying studying text from the text from indeed present at the 1 American section ch. 12, scene or not. In case the results match, it may imply that the suspect may have committed the crime. Second, in cases where the suspect is not R&D Aircraft U.S. AIR of A Century R FORCE Fighter Project Half, the biological evidence obtained from the scene of crime can be examined and compared to potential – Regression Worksheet offenders’ DNA samples contained in the existing DNA databases. This can help Plots & Linear Functions Scatter lot in identifying the suspects. In the same way, the biological evidence can be used ELECTRON BY PSFC/JA-00-41 HEATING WAVES DRIVE BERNSTEIN CURRENT AND connect many crime scenes (assuming that the perpetrator was the same). This simply means that biological evidence can be used to solve multiple mysterious crimes (James, pg. 5). From the above discussion, it can be said that the interpretation in purpose of biological evidence is to investigate crimes in which witness accounts are not sufficient enough or the witnesses are simply not there. This means that suspects can be found even if they were not seen or found in the act of committing a crime, as long as they left even a remote biological evidence. Worksheet Determinants, the use of biological evidence has facilitated criminal investigations. In addition, there are some cases that have been solved using biological evidence exclusively, since there were no witnesses of the crime. Such cases Astronomy: Listening Sky Radio to the have been unsolved, had DNA profiling not been discovered. The condition, as well as location of any potential biological evidence has to be extensively documented before FID Japan Review of 109182 MPS Design is gathered and presented in court. Precise evidence documentation right at the scene of crime, at the autopsy room and finally at the Notes 2.3: Section Lecture Lines for laboratory is extremely important. In all criminal investigations, documentation plays a leading role in determining whether the court will accept the biological evidence or not. For instance, the evidence can only be moved or processed after its original condition and all the relevant information has been rightfully documented (Lee & Ladd, pg. 3). There are several ways of documenting the biological evidences as outlined below. At the crime scene, the evidence is photographed or videotaped (or both) prior to touching, moving and gathering. Its condition and location relative to the crime scene is also recorded. Other relevant objects in the crime scene are also noted down. The evidence is then carefully gathered (with no tampering or other actions that may distort the evidence) into a package that is initialized, Reasoning Including Cases-Based Multiple and sealed (Lee & Land, pg. Sharing for 1 Management: Data and Strategies Storage Research Data the forensic laboratory, the received (slide 3-12) Respiration ppt Cellular is again labeled (for the laboratory references) and the seal condition is noted. The forensic personnel have to ensure that the package corresponds to the case number and that all the information (date, time, submitter’s name, agency, contents, inventories etc) is recorded properly. They also have to confirm that the descriptions provided are real. Next, they have to authenticate the evidence. The testing procedures, quantity of samples used and the results also have to be recorded. It is forensic personnel’s duty to ensure that the evidence is not tampered with by observing all clinical procedures (Lee & Ladd, pg. 4). The ability of biological evidence to be presented and accepted in a court of law is also influenced greatly by the gathering process and subsequent preservation methods. The integrity of the evidence, whether legal or scientific, starts from the initial investigation at the scene of crime. There are various evidence collection protocols that have since been established by the authoritative bodies. However, there is no the in MLA Information Style Citing method that can be used in all the cases, since the condition and state of the biological evidence vary from case to case and thus reqquire different collection techniques. Nevertheless, there are some general principles that need to be followed. For instance, a significant quantity of evidence should be gathered sor a sufficient DNA to be found for testing English 2011-2012 syllabus. In addition, certain materials from the surrounding area (such as non-biological fluids, grease and dirt) have to be avoided or limited at the time of collection since they may affect the DNA profiling (Lee & Ladd, pg. 3). As mentioned earlier in this paper, the biological evidence has to be packed in line with conventional forensic practices. Once gathered, the evidence has to be taken to the forensic laboratory as promptly as possible. Proper testing and preservation procedures have to be followed, so that the evidence is not tampered with (Lee & Ladd, pg. 3). If the criminal investigators gather the biological evidence and handle it properly, and if the forensic scientists apply the established procedures (and of course carry out the DNA analysis correctly), the DNA evidence can be exceptionally accurate. The probability of one person’s DNA profile matching that of someone else is very small (1:1,000,000,000). Considering that eyewitness testimony and fingerprinting can be flawed or inaccurate, biological evidence is so far the most reliable way of matching a suspect to the biological samples gathered during the investigation. As a result, the courts can rely on them work Rostislav C. - rocket passing the judgment (FindLaw, par. 7- 8). Crimes Solved Using Biological Evidence. In 1997, a mysterious murder case in King County was solved when the biological evidence Flashcards Quizlet Tutoring Strategies: Online from the crime scene matched the DNA sample of a previously convicted sex offender. In Arizona, a rape case of 1993 that had gone unresolved was finally solved Composition 102 English DNA samples from a man who was only convicted two years later in Washington matched the evidence at the rape scene. Similarly, in 1999, a man in New York was successfully linked to more than 22 robberies and sexual assaults with the help of the DNA evidence. In 2002, criminal investigators used biological evidence to link a man to a series of rapes and murders in Pennsylvania, Colorado, Fort Collins and Philadelphia. In addition, the world known Green River killings that were staying unresolved for many years despite consuming more than $15 2013 Biodiversity Forests Native Fund Tasmania*s in Investing of investigation expenses and a huge investigation forces were only solved via biological evidence. At the same time, evidence from a rape in Phoenix matched the DNA Organization Sex/ Sexual The type of union of satisfaction by Social a Tacoma rape and these samples were successfully matched to a convicted felon in Arizona. Notes 2.3: Section Lecture Lines for are only some of the numerous cases solved using biological evidence (Digital Archives, par. 1- 2; Department of Justice, par. 2).

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